Cancer Prevention Group’s Christmas reading list

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As the year draws to an end, we have been looking back and reflecting on the groups achievements in 2019. We decided that the best way to commemorate them is through our academic publications.

If you’re searching for a little light reading over the festive period, below are 36 publications from the cancer prevention group (author names in bold) over the last year.

Happy reading!

Paper name Objective Journal, Authors

1.   Flexible use of flexible sigmoidoscopy

With two screening test modalities of proven benefit, colorectal cancer screening has a problem that those working on early detection of cancer at other sites would love to have. It is not so much a question of which is better, but how should we combine the two technologies for optimum effect. J Med Screen

Peter Sasieni

2.    Current status of human papillomavirus vaccination in India’s cervical cancer prevention efforts

Efforts are being made to scale up human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for adolescent girls in India. Bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines were licensed in the country in 2008, and a nonavalent vaccine was licensed in 2018. Demonstration projects initiated in Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat in 2009 introduced HPV vaccination in public health services in India. Lancet Oncol

Sankaranarayanan R, Basu P, Kaur P, Bhaskar R, Singh GB, Denzongpa P  Peter Sasieni … and Purushotham A.

3.    Interim Results from the IMPACT Study: Evidence for Prostate-specific Antigen Screening in BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

To report the utility of PSA screening, PrCa incidence, positive predictive value of PSA, biopsy, and tumour characteristics after 3 yr of screening, by BRCA status. Eur Urol

Page EC, Bancroft EK, Brook MN, Assel M, Al Battat MH, Thomas S, … Judith Offman … and Eeles R.

4.    Concurrent participation in screening for cervical, breast, and bowel cancer in England

To determine how many women participate in all three recommended cancer screening programmes (breast, cervical, and bowel). J Med Screen

Matejka Rebolj, Parmar D, Maroni R, Blyuss O and Duffy SW.

5.    Progress in cancer survival, mortality, and incidence in seven high-income countries 1995–2014 (ICBP SURVMARK-2): a population-based study

Population-based cancer survival estimates provide valuable insights into the effectiveness of cancer services and can reflect the prospects of cure. As part of the second phase of the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership (ICBP), the Cancer Survival in High-Income Countries (SURVMARK-2) project aims to provide a comprehensive overview of cancer survival across seven high-income countries and a comparative assessment of corresponding incidence and mortality trends. Lancet Oncol

Arnold M, Rutherford MJ, Bardot, A., Ferlay J, Andersson, TM, Myklebust TÅ, … Peter Sasieni … and Bray F.

6.    Ethnic differences in barriers to symptomatic presentation in primary care: A survey of women in England

The majority of cancers are diagnosed following a decision to access medical help for symptoms. People from ethnic minority backgrounds have longer patient intervals following identification of cancer symptoms. This study quantified ethnic differences in barriers to symptomatic presentation including culturally specific barriers. Correlates of barriers (eg, migration status, health literacy, and fatalism) were also explored. Psychooncology

Williams ED, Whitaker KL, Piano M and Laura Marlow

7.       Offering an app to book cervical screening appointments: A service evaluation

To assess the feasibility of offering women who are overdue for cervical screening the use of a smartphone app to book their appointment. J Med Screen

Ryan M, Laura Marlow, Forster A, Ruwende, J and Jo Waller

8.    Public awareness of and responses to media coverage of invitation errors in the Breast Screening Programme in England: a cross-sectional population survey

In May 2018, the British Health Secretary announced the ‘serious failure’ that 450 000 women had missed out on invitations to breast screening in England, leading to extensive media coverage. This study measured public awareness of the story and tested for associated factors (eg, educational level and trust in the National Health Service (NHS)). BMJ Open

Ghanouni A, von Wagner C and Jo Waller

9.    E-cigarettes compared with nicotine replacement therapy within the UK Stop Smoking Services : the TEC RCT.

To compare the efficacy of refillable e-cigarettes and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products, when accompanied by weekly behavioural support. Health Technol Assess

Hajek P, Phillips-Waller A, Przulj D, Francesca Pesola, Myers-Smith K, Bisal N, … Peter Sasieni, … and McRobbie H.

10.  The psychosexual impact of testing positive for high‐risk cervical human papillomavirus (HPV): A systematic review

Many countries are implementing human papillomavirus (HPV)‐based cervical screening due to the higher sensitivity of the test compared with cytology. As HPV is sexually transmitted, there may be psychosexual consequences of testing positive for the virus. We aimed to review the literature exploring the psychosexual impact of testing positive for high‐risk cervical HPV. Psychooncology

Bennett KF, Jo Waller, Ryan M, Bailey JV and Laura Marlow.

11.  16/18 genotyping in triage of persistent human papillomavirus infections with negative cytology in the English cervical screening pilot

In the English pilot of primary cervical screening with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV), we exploited natural viral clearance over 24 months to minimise unnecessary referral of HR-HPV+ women with negative cytology. Three laboratories were permitted to use 16/18 genotyping to select women for referral at 12-month recall. We estimated the clinical impact of this early genotyping referral. Br J Cancer

Matejka Rebolj, Brentnall AR, Christopher Mathews, Denton K, Holbrook M, Levine T, Kitchener H on behalf of the HPV Pilot Steering Group

12.  Increasing the perceived relevance of cervical screening in older women who do not plan to attend screening

Uptake of cervical screening among women aged 50–64 years is declining. Not feeling at risk because of current sexual behaviour is a reason some older women give for not being screened. We hypothesised that explaining the long interval between acquiring human papillomavirus (HPV) and developing cervical cancer would increase the relevance of screening in older women. Sex Transm Infect

Laura Marlow, Ryan M and Jo Waller

13.  Could changing invitation and booking processes help women translate their cervical screening intentions into action? A population-based survey of women’s preferences in Great Britain

Many women who do not attend screening intend to go, but do not get around to booking an appointment. Qualitative work suggests that these ‘intenders’ face more practical barriers to screening than women who are up-to-date (‘maintainers’). This study explored practical barriers to booking a screening appointment and preferences for alternative invitation and booking methods that might overcome these barriers. BMJ Open

Ryan M, Jo Waller and Laura Marlow

14.  Equality and equity in medical screening: what is fair?

According to some policy makers, by definition, population-level health screening programmes promote equality. Although such programmes might also contain elements that promote equity—eg, by ensuring that mammography screening units are wheelchair-accessible —population screening has been synonymous with a one-size-fits all approach. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol

Peter Sasieni

15.   Anxiety and distress following receipt of results from routine HPV primary testing in cervical screening: The psychological impact of primary screening (PIPS) study

We used a cross-sectional survey to examine short-term anxiety and distress in women receiving different results following routine human papillomavirus (HPV) primary testing at cervical screening. Participants were women aged 24–65 (n = 1,127) who had attended screening at one of five sites piloting HPV primary screening in England, including a control group with normal cytology who were not tested for HPV. Int J Cancer

McBride E, Laura Marlow, Forster AS, Ridout D, Kitchener H, Patnick J, and Jo Waller

16.  A new pragmatic design for dose escalation in phase 1 clinical trials using an adaptive continual reassessment method

A key challenge in phase I trials is maintaining rapid escalation in order to avoid exposing too many patients to sub-therapeutic doses, while preserving safety by limiting the frequency of toxic events. Traditional rule-based designs require temporarily stopping recruitment whilst waiting to see whether enrolled patients develop toxicity. This can be both inefficient and introduces logistic challenges to recruitment in the clinic. We describe a novel two-stage dose assignment procedure designed for a phase I clinical trial (STARPAC), where a good estimation of prior was possible. BMC Cancer

North B, Kocher HM and Peter Sasieni

17.  Long-term excess risk of breast cancer after a single breast density measurement

Breast density is a risk factor for breast cancer. As density changes across a woman’s life span, we studied for how long a single density measurement taken in (post-)menopausal women remains informative. Eur J Cancer

Matejka Rebolj, Blyuss O, Chia KS and Duffy SW

18.  Cancer stigma and cancer screening attendance: a population based survey in England

Cancer-related stigma attracts considerable research interest, but few studies have examined stigmatisation in the healthy population. Qualitative studies suggest that stigma can discourage people from attending cancer screening. We aimed to quantify the prevalence and socio-demographic patterning of cancer stigma in the general population and to explore its association with cancer screening attendance. BMC Cancer

Vrinten C, Gallagher A, Jo Waller and Laura Marlow

19.  Socio-demographic correlates of cervical cancer risk factor knowledge among screening non-participants in Great Britain

This study explored knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors among cervical screening non-participants in Great Britain. The aim was to identify knowledge gaps that could be targeted in screening information materials or public education campaigns. Prev med

Ryan M, Laura Marlow and Jo Waller

20.  Impact of a lung cancer screening information film on informed decision-making – a randomized trial

To evaluate the impact of a novel information film on informed decision-making in individuals considering participating in lung cancer screening. Ann Am Thorac Soc

Ruparel M, Quaife SL, Bhagabati Ghimire, Dickson, JL, Bhowmik A, … Jo Waller and Janes SM

21.  Benefits and harms in the National Lung Screening Trial: expected outcomes with a modern management protocol

Lung cancer screening is receiving increasing attention worldwide, both in the medical community and the general public. Multiple randomised trials — including the US National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), the Multicentric Italian Lung Detection trial, and preliminary results from the Dutch-Belgian NELSON trial — have provided definitive evidence that low-dose CT screening can reduce lung cancer mortality. However, any screening programme is associated with both benefits and harms, and accurately communicating these to patients and the general public is a complex challenge. Lancet Respir Med

Robbins HA, Callister M, Peter Sasieni, Quaife SL, Cheung LC, Brennan P,  Katki HA, Berg CD, Baldwin D and  Johansson M

22.  The impact of descriptive norms on motivation to participate in cancer screening – Evidence from online experiments

The current study tested in two online experiments whether manipulating normative beliefs about cancer screening uptake increases intention to attend colorectal screening among previously disinclined individuals. Patient Educ Couns

von Wagner C, Hirst Y, Jo Waller, Ghanouni A, McGregor, LM, Kerrison, R.S., Verstraete W, Vlaev I, Sieverding M and Stoffel ST.

23.  The Manchester International Consensus Group recommendations for the management of gynecological cancers in Lynch syndrome

There are no internationally agreed upon clinical guidelines as to which women with gynecological cancer would benefit from Lynch syndrome screening or how best to manage the risk of gynecological cancer in women with Lynch syndrome. The Manchester International Consensus Group was convened in April 2017 to address this unmet need. Genet Med

Crosbie EJ, Ryan NA, Arends MJ, Bosse T, Burn J, Cornes JM … Peter Sasieni …  and Evans DG.

24.  Lung cancer mortality in Australia in the twenty-first century: How many lives can be saved with effective tobacco control?

To estimate the number of past and future lung cancer deaths that have already been averted by tobacco control initiatives in Australia, and to estimate the number of additional deaths averted under various smoking scenarios. Lung Cancer

Luo Q, Steinberg J, O’Connell DL, Yu XQ, Caruana M, Wade S, Francesca Pesola, … Peter Sasieni … and Canfell K.

25.  Absolute risks of cervical precancer among women who fulfill exiting guidelines based on HPV and cytology cotesting

US guidelines recommend that most women older than 65 years cease cervical screening after two consecutive negative cotests (concurrent HPV and cytology tests) in the previous 10 years, with one in the last 5 years. However, this recommendation was based on expert opinion and modeling rather than empirical data on cancer risk. We therefore estimated the 5-year risks of cervical precancer after one, two and three negative cotests. Int J Cancer

Landy R, Schiffman M, Peter Sasieni, Cheung LC, Katki HA, Rydzak G, … and Castle PE

26.  Barriers to cervical screening among older women from hard-to-reach groups: a qualitative study in England

Understanding attitudes to screening and reasons for non-attendance in older women will help to identify the content of interventions for this age group. This study aimed to explore barriers to cervical screening among women aged 50–64 years from hard-to-reach groups whose perspectives are often absent from research on cervical screening but are critical to developing appropriate interventions to increase engagement with the screening offer. BMC WomensHealth

Laura Marlow, McBride E, Varnes L and Jo Waller


27.  Cancer elimination thresholds: one size does not fit all

Australia should be congratulated  on  being set to “eliminate” cervical cancer by  2028,  but  we  question  defining  elimination   as   having   an   annual   incidence of four per 100000 women. We suggest setting age and country specific   targets   with   the   aim   of   preventing a set proportion  of  new  cervical  cancer  cases  by  a  given  date. Lancet Public Health

Alejandra Castanon, Francesca Pesola and Peter Sasieni

28.  Primary cervical screening with high risk human papillomavirus testing: observational study

To provide the first report on the main outcomes from the prevalence and incidence rounds of a large pilot of routine primary high risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing in England, compared with contemporaneous primary liquid based cytology screening. BMJ

Matejka Rebolj, Rimmer J, Denton K, Tidy J, Christopher Mathews, Ellis K,   and Kitchener H.

29.   A Randomized Trial of E-Cigarettes versus Nicotine-Replacement Therapy

E-cigarettes are commonly used in attempts to stop smoking, but evidence is limited regarding their effectiveness as compared with that of nicotine products approved as smoking-cessation treatments. N Engl JMed

Hajek P, Phillips-Waller A, Przulj D, Francesca Pesola, Myers Smith K, Bisal N, …  Peter Sasieni, … and McRobbie HJ.

30.  Impact of screening on cervical cancer incidence in England: a time trend analysis

To better model underlying trends in cervical cancer incidence so as to model past trends, to estimate the impact of cervical screening on cervical cancer rates at different ages and to obtain a counterfactual baseline under a no-screening scenario. BMJ Open

Francesca Pesola and Peter Sasieni

31.  Psychosocial impact of human papillomavirus‐related head and neck cancer on patients and their partners: A qualitative interview study

Increasing numbers of patients face the psychosocial challenge of a diagnosis of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). We explored the psychosocial impact of an HPV‐OSCC diagnosis for patients and their partners. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl)

Dodd RH, Forster AS, Laura Marlow and Jo Waller

32.  Development and validation of a haematuria cancer risk score to identify patients at risk of harbouring cancer

To develop and externally validate the haematuria cancer risk score (HCRS) to improve patient selection for the investigation of haematuria. J Intern Med

Tan WS, Ahmad A, Feber A, Mostafid H, Cresswell J, Fankhauser CD, … and Peter Sasieni

33.  Longitudinal Clinical Performance of the RNA-Based Aptima Human Papillomavirus (AHPV) Assay in Comparison to the DNA-Based Hybrid Capture 2 HPV Test in Two Consecutive Screening Rounds with a 6-Year Interval in Germany

Longitudinal data on the E6/E7 mRNA-based Aptima human papillomavirus (AHPV) assay exceeding three years in comparison to the gold standard Digene Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) test are not available. We previously reported the cross-sectional data of the German AHPV Screening Trial (GAST) in which 10,040 women were recruited and tested by liquid-based cytology, the HC2 assay, and the AHPV assay. Here we report on the absolute risk of developing high-risk HPV-positive CIN3 over six years. J Clin Microbiol

Iftner T, Neis KJ, Castanon A, Landy R, Holz B, Woll-Herrmann A, … and Peter Sasieni

34.  Is a delay in the introduction of human papillomavirus-based cervical screening affordable?

It often takes considerable time for sufficient evidence to accumulate to support implementation of new methods in routine screening. Where national screening programmes are already effective, switching to a more sensitive screening test may not be a priority. Although risk associated with overly rapid implementation exists, postponement is also associated with a (to date unquantified) missed opportunity to prevent deaths. This risk tends not to be addressed where effective screening methods are already in use. We here estimate the monetary value of a one-year delay in replacing cytology cervical screening with human papillomavirus testing. J Med Screen

Alejandra Castanon, Matejka Rebolj and Peter Sasieni 

35.  Evaluation of a health service adopting proactive approach to reduce high risk of lung cancer: The Liverpool Healthy Lung Programme.

The Liverpool Healthy Lung Programme is a response to high rates of lung cancer and respiratory diseases locally and aims to diagnose lung cancer at an earlier stage by proactive approach to those at high risk of lung cancer. The objective of this study is to evaluate the programme in terms of its likely effect on mortality from lung cancer and its delivery to deprived populations. Lung Cancer

Bhagabati Ghimire, Maroni R, Vulkan D, Shah Z, Gaynor E, Timoney M, … and Field JK.

36.  Cost-effectiveness of e-cigarettes compared with nicotine replacement therapy in stop smoking services in England (TEC study): a randomised controlled trial.



37. Impact of screening on cervical cancer incidence. A population‐based case‐control study in the United States


To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation aid used in routine stop smoking services in England.




For the first time, we estimate the impact of cervical screening at a state-wide level, linking the only US population-based screening registry with a SEER cancer registry. We show that 3-yearly screening prevents 83% of stage 2+ cancer, with no additional benefit from more frequent screening. The safety of 3-yearly cytology and lack of benefit of more frequent screening should reassure clinicians who remain skeptical of US guidelines and enable them to become willingly adherent.


Li J, Hajek P, Pesola F, Wu Q, Phillips-Waller A, Przulj D, … Sasieni P, … and Parrott S.



International Journal of Cancer

Landy, R, Peter Sasieni, Christopher Mathews, Wiggins, C, Robertson, M, McDonald, Y.


The views expressed are those of the author. Posting of the blog does not signify that the Cancer Prevention Group endorse those views or opinions.

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